How do patterns develop in nature? How do digits develop on a limb? ~ Hox genes are the answer.

Figure 2

Skeletal phenotypes of mouse mutants. + indicates a normal allele and – , XtJ, or Del11-13 indicate an allele knockout or abnormal allele. Hox genes are indicated by column and Gli3 genes are indicated by row.

Figure 2: Representative skeletal phenotypes of newborns of the Hoxa13;Hoxd11-13;Gli3 allelic series. Digit number (indicated for the Gli3XtJ/XtJ condition) increases as distal Hox dose is reduced. When only one functional copy of Hoxa13 remains (right column), the tip of the digits is connected by a continuous band of ossified (red) and cartilaginous (blue) tissue rimming the distal border of the limb and becoming more conspicuous as Gli3 copies are removed. Figure and legend from Sheth et al. 2012.

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