Figure 1. Song learning pathways in songbirds. (a) Temporeal outline of song learning. (b) Dorsal view of zebra finch brain (left), and side view through medial forebrain (right). Song premotor circuitry is shown in red, with the HVC (high vocal center) and auditory circuitry in blue. A1 primary auditory regions (field L); CM, caudal mesopallium; Area X, striatal component of the song system; RA, robust nucleus of the arcopallium; VMNs, vocal motor neurons. (c) Schemmatic of tutor-song-contingent disruption of neural activity in pupil’s brain.