The dice of fate: the csd gene and how its allelic composition regulates sexual development in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

SDL locus

Genotypes and sexual fate under the system of complementary sex determination found in many hymenopteran species (ants, bees, wasps, sawflies). Males derive from unfertilized eggs and have only one sex determination allele (marked by different colored bars). Fertilized eggs with two different sex-determining alleles (heterozygous) develop into females. Diploid males arise from fertilized eggs that are homozygous for the same sex-determining allele. These diploid males arise most commonly under inbreeding conditions in which the father has an allele in common with the mother.

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