The dice of fate: the csd gene and how its allelic composition regulates sexual development in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

CSD allelic polypeptides

Models for protein association of two csd allelic polypeptides and their functional consequences.

Color intensities represent different specificities of csd alleles. The most-variable parts of the allelic sequences (RS domain, proline-rich domain, hypervariable part) are marked in blue and yellow while the more-conserved N-terminal part is shown in green. Model 1: polypeptides that are derived from different alleles associate and form heteromers that are functionally active. The non-functional species is the monomer that is present in haploid and diploid males. Model 2: polypeptides that are derived from the same allele associate and form homomers. Consequently, two homomer species exist in females, while there is only one homomeric species in males. Model 3: no binding but activity differences exist depending on whether polypeptides derive from the same or different alleles. Different complementation groups in different alleles complement each other resulting in a functional protein in heterozygous females. I predict that no differences in binding properties of polypeptides are found whether they are derived from the same or different alleles.

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